By Stephen Bull
The commonplace armies which marched off to conflict in 1914 have been composed of massed riflemen, screened through cavalry and supported through artillery; their leaders anticipated a short and decisive consequence, accomplished by means of sweeping manoeuvre, daring management and ability at fingers. Eighteen months later the complete nature of box armies and their strategies had replaced totally. In subtle trench platforms forming a battlefield a number of miles extensive and four hundred miles lengthy, conscript armies sheltered from vast long-range bombardment, wielding new guns in response to new tactical doctrines. this primary of 2 richly illustrated stories explains intimately the specifics of that outstanding transformation, entire with ten complete color plates of uniforms and gear.
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Additional info for World War I Trench Warfare (1): 1914-16 (Elite) (Pt.1)
By May 1915 General Headquarters had published a composition for a 'Trench Storming Party' which was to consist of 14 or more men led by an NCO. The personnel were to have four distinct functions, respectively: grenadiers; grenade carriers; 'bayonet men' to cover the party and winkle out the opposition; and sandbag men' who followed up, blocking side entrances and forming a final barricade at the furthest point of the advance into the enemy trench system. By the latter part of 1915 it was accepted that new weaponry had fundamentally changed the method of combat.
Furthermore the beginnings of 'big pushes', hurricane bombardments, infiltration, and mixed combat groups were apparent even by mid-1915. The problems would be integrating these disparate ideas, training and equipping the troops, and using them for a worthwhile strategic result. 35 near Ypres on the morning of 22 April 1915. Entirely unprepared, the French Colonial troops in the path of the cloud of choking yellowish-green chlorine broke and fled 'like a flock of sheep'. Serious inhalations of chlorine had hideous effects, destroying the alveoli of the lungs, and drowning men in the liquid that their own damaged bodies created.
There are two main trench lines between 100 and 400 yards apart, and both lines are provided with machine gun posts and shelters. Latrines, cookhouse, and aid post are positioned on the communication trench joining the lines. 47 48 in the usage of the day - by even tough-minded front line eyewitnesses. Shephard of the 1st Dorsets, whose battalion suffered badly at Hill 60 on 1 May, linked the gas attacks in his diary with the loss of women and children aboard the torpedoed Lusitania, and wrote that 'the Dorset Regiment's motto now is, "No Prisoners"' - but he also urged immediate British retaliation in kind.
World War I Trench Warfare (1): 1914-16 (Elite) (Pt.1) by Stephen Bull