By A Roth
Marketplace: Scientists, engineers, and graduate scholars in vacuum expertise. This quantity offers a number of options constructed within the early Sixties for the effective development of trustworthy vacuum seals, and gives serious insights into the layout, building, and meeting of vacuum platforms. generally researched, this paintings covers numerous sealing concepts and layout ideas that stay as technologically proper now as they have been approximately 3 a long time in the past.
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Dore 288 recommends a solvent cleaning (to dissolve the mineral oils and greases) followed by cleaning in an alkaline solution (to remove the greases which can be saponified). 5). The vacuum vessel should not be permeable to gases. Thus only rolled or forged metal is recommended. Castings are generally not satisfactory for vacuum envelopes, excepting small components where die castings (Millen858), centrifugally cast metal or metal-sprayed or plated parts (Kronberger721) can be used. The vacuum vessel should be corrosion resistant.
Oil) or air cooling should be used. The permeation of hydrogen through steels increases with increasing carbon content. Low carbon steels are thus preferred as vacuum containers. The impermeability of technical glasses to gases can be taken for granted (Stanworth1176) when the vacuum system does not involve parts with pressures lower than 10- 6 torr. For lower pressures the permeability of glasses to various gases and especially to helium is high enough to change the vacuum level inside the system (Alpert18).
The gas permeability of mica (perpendicular to its surface) is very low. e. is lower than that of glasses. ----11 /> ~~---N,t•l/< tl~-~ I/ "'E " £ /-- :0 0 QJ E :;; r ----+- - /' ~ ~ E 0.. I t E 0 I ; - - -14xl0- 6 t _, ,. l) --2 i I J Time, t, I 6 4 hr FIG. 2 mm thick). Compiled after Dawton 267 (Courtesy of The Institute of Physics and The Physical Society, London) Organic polymers (rubbers, plastics) are permeated by all the gases, including the rare ones (Norton 944). There are wide variations in permeability depending on the polymer and the gas involved in the process.
Vacuum sealing techniques by A Roth