By John G Sommer
Difficulties can ensue throughout the many steps eager about the manufacture and use of rubber articles. There are demanding situations in picking and mixing fabrics to shape a rubber compound, blending and processing gear lower than diverse stipulations, or utilizing the completed product in several stipulations and environments. From fabrics to procedures to items, this booklet troubleshoots a few of the diversified rubber-related difficulties and indicates ways to unravel them. various case experiences and references are integrated
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Extra info for Troubleshooting Rubber Problems
When difficulties occur, carbon black properties should be determined at the point of use (internal mixer, mill) because black properties can change in being transported. Particle size and structure are two important carbon black parameters. For compounding tire treads, it is desirable to have a sufficiently fine particle size and a sufficiently high structure to obtain good wear resistance . 7 shows the relative wear resistance associated with several carbon blacks. 8 lists typical relationships between carbon black properties and rubber properties that can serve as a useful aid in compounding .
A self-bondable grade is available for overmolding other materials such as aluminum and certain flame-retardant nylons. 1 NBR (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber) NBR, formerly called nitrile rubber, is an emulsion copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene  wherein the acrylonitrile content generally varies from 18 to 50%. Higher acrylonitrile content results in better oil and fuel resistance but poorer lowtemperature properties. The unsaturated backbone of NBR subjects it to attack by oxygen and ozone, problems that are largely corrected by hydrogenating NBR to convert it to HNBR.
12 Fillers Fillers, which can be in particulate, resinous, or fibrous form, are an important part of a rubber compound . Some fillers retard vulcanization; this tendency can be offset with the use of additives such as polyethylene glycols. The effect of some fillers, for example, clays, can be problematic especially when the clays are used at high levels. Amine-treated clays can be used to counter this problem. Carbon black, because of its very wide use as filler in tires and other rubber products, deserves special attention.
Troubleshooting Rubber Problems by John G Sommer