By Alexandra Barahona De Brito, Carmen Gonzalez Enriquez, Paloma Aguilar
Probably the most very important political and moral matters confronted in the course of a political transition from authoritarian or totalitarian to democratic rule is easy methods to take care of legacies of repression. This ebook explores the $64000 element of transitional politics, assessing how Portugal, Spain, the international locations of primary and japanese Europe and Germany after reunification, Russia, the Southern Cone of Latin the United States and important the United States, in addition to South Africa, have faced legacies of repression.
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Extra resources for The Politics of Memory: Transitional Justice in Democratizing Societies
Each country undertook radically different policies to deal with past repressors and authoritarian elites. In Greece, the Junta Trials of 1974–5 sentenced 24 of the more than 100 men that had led the 1967 coup and the bloody colonels' regime, and some were still serving their sentences at the end of 1996. In addition, about 100,000 civil servants were purged and a few hundred trials for torture took place, but few convictions were secured. In Portugal, there were widespread purges, particularly in 1974–5 when left-wing revolutionary forces and radical military ofﬁcers held the reins of power, which affected members of the former Salazar New State 4 INTRODUCTION dictatorship, the effects of which were all subsequently annulled or reversed.
Conventions covered not only the classical crimes against humanity in wartime, but also torture and disappearance and other crimes in peacetime. These standards were empowered by the progressive ratiﬁcation by nation states of the various human rights conventions, and were complemented by the national development of ‘political conditionality’ in aid and trade relations. At the same time, powerful transnational networks focusing on normative issues created in the 1970s were by then well developed, complementing and pushing forward the work of formal national, regional, and international institutions, as well as boosting the INTRODUCTION 23 inﬂuence of national HROs.
In other countries, although there have been no ofﬁcial trials, individuals and HROs have ﬁled suit against repressors, and important convictions have been secured in Argentina since the pardons, as well as in 1 A truth and justice commission was also established in Ecuador in 1996. However, while charged with investigating the previous 17 years of unresolved human rights violations, it was established not in the transitional period, but long after it. INTRODUCTION 5 Chile, Ecuador, and Paraguay.
The Politics of Memory: Transitional Justice in Democratizing Societies by Alexandra Barahona De Brito, Carmen Gonzalez Enriquez, Paloma Aguilar