By Christopher R. Browning
Released through the collage of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, and Yad Vashem, JerusalemIn 1939, the Nazi regime’s plans for redrawing the demographic map of japanese Europe entailed the expulsion of hundreds of thousands of Jews. through the autumn of 1941, those plans had shifted from expulsion to systematic and overall mass homicide of all Jews in the Nazi seize. The Origins of the ultimate resolution is the main targeted and complete research ever written of what happened in this the most important period—of how, accurately, the Nazis’ racial rules advanced from persecution and “ethnic detoxification” to the ultimate answer of the Holocaust.Focusing at the months among the German conquest of Poland in September 1939–which introduced approximately million extra Jews below Nazi control—and the start of the deportation of Jews to the dying camps within the spring of 1942, Christopher R. Browning describes how Poland turned a laboratory for experiments in racial rules, from expulsion and decimation to ghettoization and exploitation lower than neighborhood career gurus. He finds how the following assault at the Soviet Union opened the door for an important radicalization of Nazi Jewish policy—and marked the start of the ultimate answer. Meticulously documenting the method that resulted in this deadly improvement, Browning indicates that Adolf Hitler was once the foremost decision-maker all through, approving significant escalations in Nazi persecution of the Jews at victory-induced moments of euphoria. completely researched and lucidly written, this groundbreaking paintings offers an important bankruptcy within the heritage of the Holocaust.
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Extra info for The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939-March 1942 (Comprehensive History of the Holocaust)
He promptly returned the camp to army control. The following day he refused the ss demand to turn over the prisoners, and confronted the Einsatzgruppe commander, Emanuel Schäfer, in Czestochowa. The latter justiﬁed his actions by referring to an order from Himmler, unknown to the army, that all members of insurgent bands were to be shot. Further inquiry conﬁrmed that an order to shoot insurgents without trial had been issued from the ‘‘Führer’s train’’ directly to the police. ≤∞ Schäfer’s intimation that Woyrsch’s unit was ahead of his own in executions was soon conﬁrmed when the intelligence o≈cer of the 14th Army reported to Abwehr chief Canaris on September 20 on ‘‘the unrest that has arisen in the army’s area of jurisdiction through partially illegal measures of Einsatzgruppe Woyrsch (mass shootings, especially of Jews).
Too often, however, these policies and this period have been seen through a perspective inﬂuenced, indeed distorted and overwhelmed, by the catastrophe that followed. ∞ Conversely, the policy of ghettoization has all too often been seen as an integral, even conscious, preparatory step toward extermination, while to the Germans at the time it was a temporary improvisation, a ‘‘necessary evil’’ that followed from the failure of expulsion plans. These policies are the focus of the next two chapters.
This transformation from chaotic to systematic terror began ﬁrst in West Prussia in October 1939. Throughout the Polish borderlands the local Volksdeutsche had been mobilized into auxiliary units known as the Selbstschutz to protect their communities against Polish attack in the ﬁrst days of the war. ∫∂ When the German army quickly swept past most of the ethnic German communities, the bands shifted their attention from self-defense to revenge, settling scores with those who had not ﬂed in time.
The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939-March 1942 (Comprehensive History of the Holocaust) by Christopher R. Browning