By J. Kartenbeck, H. Zentgraf, U. Scheer, W. W. Franke
Up to now 20 years the constitution of the nuclear envelope, and specifically, that of its such a lot targeted components, the nuclear pore complexes, has been defined from skinny part electron microscopy (e, g., Brettschneider, 1952; Hartmann, 1953; Bahr and Beermann, 1954; Watson, 1954; Kautz and de Marsh, 1955; Watson, 1955), from metal-shadowed (e. g., Callan and Tomlin, 1950; Gall, 1954, 1956) and negatively stained (e. g., Franke, 1966, 1967; Gall, 1967; Yoo and Bayley, 1967) arrangements of remoted nuclear membranes as revealing characte ristics universal to euka. ryotic cells usually (recently reviewed, e. g., in Gouran ton, 1969; Stevens and Andre, 1969; Franke, 1970). within the contemporary years the freeze-etch procedure (Steere, 1957) has proved to be a very great tool in learning membraneous buildings (e. g., Moor and Miihlethaler, 1963; Branton and Moor, 1964; Branton, 1966; Koehler, 1968b; Staehelin, l968a; Northcote, 1968a; Branton, 1969; Moor, 1969a). So this technique has in particular broadened the data, e. g., on bacterial membranes (Bayer and Remsen, 1970; Nanninga, 1970), on erythrocyte plasma membranes (Weinstein and Bullivant, 1967; Meyer and Winkelmann, 1970; da Silva and Branton, 1970; Tillack and Marchesi, 1970), on liver cellphone membranes (Chalcroft and Bullivant, 1970), on Golgi membranes (Werz and Kellner, 1970; Staehelin and Kiermayer, 1970), on synaptic vesicles (Moor et al.
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Extra info for The Nuclear Envelope in Freeze-Etching
Freeze-etching observations on nucleated erythrocytes with special reference to the nuclear and plasma membranes. Z. Zellforsch. 86, 1-17 (1968b). - A freeze-etching study of rabbit spermatozoa with particular reference to head structures. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 38, 598-614 (1970). : Study of rabbit alveolar macrophage by freeze etching. J. Microscopie II, 177-184 (1970). Kuzmina, S. , Zbarsky, J. , Monakhov,N. , Gaitzkhoki, V. ,Neifakh, S. : Respiration in isolated rat liver nuclear envelopes.
Fig. 31 represents a fracture corresponding to Fig. 26g: the pore circumference (arrows) is partly covered by the annular granules. The pores shown in Fig. 41 are interpreted as representing the case of Fig. 26a: the projecting tips protrude from the pore wall into the lumen. A central granule is clearly seen. Both figures, 160000: l Fig. 32. Nucleus isolated from a mature Alpine newt oocyte, previously fixed with 2% glutaraldehyde, incubated in glycerol and frozen-etched. Many of the pore complexes stand upon the particle set "non-prime" fracture face as compact cylinders as indicated by their long shadows.
G. insert a), radiating filaments (insert b), and the "inner ring" (insert c) can frequently be recognized. Magnificati on, 39 000: 1 ; insert a-c, 100000: l in mind that such shrinkage primarily reflects the condensati on of the chromatinous mass, and that thus it is the "precipita ted" state of the chromatin which maintains the specific nuclear morpholog y (for the particular clear 40 J. Kartenbeck, H. Zentgraf, U. Scheer and W. W. Franke: Fig. 41. Part of a nuclear envelope of an isolated, aldehyde and glycerol treated freeze.
The Nuclear Envelope in Freeze-Etching by J. Kartenbeck, H. Zentgraf, U. Scheer, W. W. Franke