By L. J. Bellamy C.B.E.. B.Sc, Ph.D. (auth.)
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Extra resources for The Infrared Spectra of Complex Molecules: Volume Two Advances in Infrared Group Frequencies
However, a normal coordinate analysis of the vinyl halides has suggested that the motion is primarily one in which the two hydrogen atoms at opposite ends of the double bond deform together on the same side of the C=C plane, while the third hydrogen atom takes the opposite direction. The mode is therefore very similar to the twisting mode of trans-disubstituted ethylenes described above. The idea is supported by the close parallelism between the behaviour of this band with changes in the substituents and that of the 965-cm - 1 band of trans-ethylene compounds.
3. Conjugation effects on double bonds in open chains (a) s-cis and s-trans rxp-unsaturated ketones Several groups have studied the differentiation [I8, 39--41, 100] of these two isomers, and some relatively simple rules are now available. A preliminary indication of the structure can be obtained from the separation of the vCO and > C=C bands. In s-trans compounds this is usually less than 60 cm - 1, whereas in s-cis compounds the separation is greater than this. Thus 3methylcyclohexen-2-one (s-trans) has vCO 1680 cm - 1 and vC=C 1641 cm -1, and mesityl oxide (s-cis) has vCO 1692 cm- 1 and vC=C 1619 cm -1.
In 3dimethyl cyclopropene the frequency rises slightly to 1656 cm -1  whilst in Alkenes and Vibrations of C=N and N=N Links 29 the corresponding difluoro compound it falls to 1597 cm - 1 . This is probably due to a real change of force constant, but it does serve to confirm that the exceptional value of 1938 cm -1 found for the tetra fluoro compound (see below) is due to physical rather than to chemical factors. 2. Fluorinated hydrocarbons (rings) It is well known that the C=C frequencies of perfluoro hydrocarbons are exceptionally high.
The Infrared Spectra of Complex Molecules: Volume Two Advances in Infrared Group Frequencies by L. J. Bellamy C.B.E.. B.Sc, Ph.D. (auth.)