By Margaret MacMillan, uncredited, Recorded Books
For 6 months, the world's significant leaders-including Woodrow Wilson, president of the U.S., David Lloyd George, leading minister of serious Britain, and Georges Clemenceau, major minister of France-met to debate the peace settlements which have been to finish global struggle I. The Peace convention handled, between different issues, finishing up the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires, punishing Germany, growing Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia and Iraq, constructing the League of countries and the overseas Labour association, regulating foreign waterways and aviation, and feeding refugees. a good battle had simply ended and political and social buildings have been collapsing in components of Europe and the center East. New borders needed to be tested. a lot of the realm we are living in this present day is formed by means of judgements made all these years ago. Read more...
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Additional info for Six months that changed the world : the Paris Peace Conference of 1919
In the end, he suggested that a final figure not be put in the treaty, but be determined by an independent commission. This was done, but the process added to German resentment. The final figure was set at $32 billion US, to be paid in stages—in-kind and cash. The War Guilt Clause Article 231, which was written by John Foster Dulles, was put in to establish Germany’s liability. ” Article 232 said that reparations had to be based on Germany’s ability to pay. The German Reaction to the Peace Terms The Germans brought crates of materials to Paris, believing that they would have full-scale negotiations.
Orlando and Sonnino decided to walk out and returned to Rome, where they were greeted with tremendous enthusiasm. Wilson decided to appeal directly to the Italian people in a public letter. In Paris, the peacemakers feared that the conference would fall apart and there would be no treaty signed with Germany. Italy Returns The Peace Conference carried on its work and began to carve up Turkey without consulting the Italians. The Italian delegation finally came back, but relations between the Italians and the Americans in particular never recovered and it proved impossible to get a final settlement of Italy’s claims in the Adriatic before Wilson left.
From the start they had to deal with widespread revolts. Faisal proved to be a good king but, from the British point of view, a too-independent one. Kurdistan? The Kurds, who stretched from Turkey across to Iran, were only starting to emerge as a nation. At the Paris Peace Conference there was some talk of an independent Kurdistan, but that was dropped by the time the final treaty was signed with Turkey at Lausanne in 1923. Conclusion The consequences of the peace settlements in the Middle East are still with us today.
Six months that changed the world : the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 by Margaret MacMillan, uncredited, Recorded Books