By Alan Huddleston
Interest in bone densitometry equipment has lately skilled a resurgence in the clinical neighborhood. Physicians became extra than ever sooner than within the prognosis and therapy of degenerative ailments of bone akin to osteoporosis. the general public belief of osteoporosis and its prevention has been lately heightened. simply because osteoporosis is frequent, in particular in girls, and results in a rise in fractures in our inhabitants, many re searchers and clinicians are strongly encouraged of their look for extra sensi tive and actual equipment of prognosis. This ebook was once written for physicians, scientists, engineers, clinical phy sicists, and others needing an creation or additional knowing of this fascinating box. starting with the early improvement of x-ray movie tools for assessing bone prestige, the sector has progressively grown during the years. Novel and fascinating units were designed for the size of bone mass, bone density, cortical thickness, and different parameters of bone alterations. either qualitative and quantitative bone tools are defined. The suggestions contain imaging units akin to CT and radiography in addition to mounted element equipment within which bone features of a area of curiosity are analyzed.
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Extra info for Quantitative Methods in Bone Densitometry
Normal BMC for the distal tenth of the human radius and at midradius, expressed in glcm, and normalized g/cm 2 , are given by Wahner et al. (1984). Normal BMC data is also presented for men. As measured by the SPA method, the bone mineral content (BMC) reaches a maximum at 30 to 35 years of age, with males having higher BMC than females. 2 BMC, g/cn! 40 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Age (years) Figure 17. Normal female BMC at distal tenth of radius and at mid radius versus age (Courtesy: HW Wahner) single-photon absorptiometry that BMC decreases with age in both males and females, with females experiencing a more rapid decline in BMC with age.
A commercially available densitometer is used to determine the optical densities in the regions of interest of the radiograph. Densitometers may measure the optical density of a spot, line, or area. , 1984). The most acceptable photo densitometry methods incorporate a soft-tissue (water) phantom, in which the hand is immersed. The film is placed beneath 30 2. Radiographic Film Methods Figure 10. Semi-automated morphomctcr for cortical bone measurement (Courtesy: A Horsman) the phantom for the exposure.
Lflll tv C.. MEIIA VIDIO Figure 11. 4 mm Al at this kVp. Two narrow (adjustable) scanning slits were used to reduce scattered radiation. The slits were scanned along the longitudinal axis of the patient using computer-controlled stepping motors. S-second pause at each location was used for visualizing the image on the TV monitor. The transmission data were digitized and stored on the computer, and a 256 X 256 X 4 bit video display was used for viewing the images. Completed images were stored on a hard disc and on floppy discs.
Quantitative Methods in Bone Densitometry by Alan Huddleston