By Ian Shapiro, Susan C. Stokes, Elisabeth Jean Wood, Dr Alexander S. Kirshner
Political illustration lies on the center of contemporary politics. Democracies, with their massive numbers of voters, couldn't function with out consultant associations. but kinfolk among the democratic excellent and the typical perform of political illustration have by no means been good outlined and stay the topic of lively debate between historians, political theorists, legal professionals, and electorate. during this quantity, an eminent team of students flow ahead the debates approximately political illustration on a few fronts. Drawing on insights from political technology, historical past, political concept, economics, and anthropology, the authors supply much-needed readability to a couple of the main vexing questions about political illustration. in addition they demonstrate new and enlightening views in this primary political perform. subject matters mentioned contain illustration earlier than democracy, political events, minorities, electoral pageant, and beliefs. This quantity is key interpreting for an individual attracted to the best and the truth of political illustration.
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Additional info for Political Representation
Moreover, it is suggested, the system of representation through parliamentary election was rather remote from the “parish state” that most Britons encountered, in which participation was prized. In this view, then, the British system was something of a hybrid. It had tiers of representatives chosen by elections; but parliamentary elections were only one part. There was a myriad of local posts that were locally elected, and, moreover, a culture of citizenship that saw office-holding and participation as civic duties, and active consent as a civic right.
Representation, as it developed in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Britain, was thus a participatory process involving, on occasion, a good deal of direct political activity. An electoral system “differing radically from democracy” was thus not “invented” in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Manin 1997: 4). Citizens were not merely the source of political legitimacy through the consent they gave at elections, but possessed strong notions of self-governance and more than one representative voice in a system of overlapping but legitimate authorities.
Claims were also made that parliament alone was the representative of the people. Yet exclusive parliamentary representation was, especially in the mid/late seventeenth to the early eighteenth century and again in the late eighteenth to the early nineteenth century, more of an ideal than a reality. 3 The corporations were (chiefly) towns that had obtained royal charters, of which there were only 38 in 1500, but 130 by 1600, 181 by 1640, and 246 by 1833 (Withington 2005: 18; Sweet 1999: 33; Clark 2000: Table 2).
Political Representation by Ian Shapiro, Susan C. Stokes, Elisabeth Jean Wood, Dr Alexander S. Kirshner