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New PDF release: Modern methods for the determination of non-metals in

By Engelmann, Charles

ISBN-10: 0899250106

ISBN-13: 9780899250106

ISBN-10: 3110103427

ISBN-13: 9783110103427

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Extra resources for Modern methods for the determination of non-metals in non-ferrous metals: Applications to particular systems of metallurgical importance

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2 3 ] : (χ) for different incident 12 3 11 energies. Standards are polyethylene for the C( He,a) C reaction (5J 16 3 18 and quartz for the 0( He,p) F reaction (6y - when Eq. [23] i s used, the error i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y smaller Al V than the maximum possible Zr Pb error given in Table 11-2; - when Eq. [21] or [23] i s used, the error increases with decreasing threshold energy; - the error increases with Ζ for the sample, at least when a low Ζ standard i s used; - the error decreases as the incident energy increases, as long as the cross-section at the incident energy remains significant.

Table 11-6 gives some materials that proved suitable as These materials are preferentially used in the form of discs or pellets of similar dimensions as the samples. Powders are however also sometimes used. 5. 1. Particle accelerator Charged particles of the energies required for activation analysis can be obtained with a cyclotron or a Van de Graaff accelerator. Most of the applications described in this book can be carried out with a so-called compact cyclotron. 5 MeV deuterons, 6-32 MeV helium-3 and 6-29 MeV helium-4.

3. Comparison with the numerical integration method Vandecasteele and Strijckmans (30) calculated F according to Eq. [27] by numerical integration using excitation function data from the literature and stopping power data from Ref. (24). The results were compared to those obtained by Eqs. [21], [22] and [23]. Table 11-3 summarizes some data on the nuclear reactions studied and on the standards used. Figs. 11-13 to 11-16 summarize this intercomparison. The percent difference between the F-value from Eq.

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Modern methods for the determination of non-metals in non-ferrous metals: Applications to particular systems of metallurgical importance by Engelmann, Charles


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