Membranes in Bioprocessing: Theory and Applications - download pdf or read online

By J. A. Howell (auth.), J. A. Howell, V. Sanchez, R. W. Field (eds.)

ISBN-10: 9401049548

ISBN-13: 9789401049542

ISBN-10: 9401121567

ISBN-13: 9789401121569

1. A. HOWELL institution ofChemical Engineering, college ofBath, Claverton Down, tub, united kingdom, BA2 7AY 1.1 what's A MEMBRANE method? on a daily basis over 20 million litres of brackish water are pumped out of the floor close to Jeddah in Saudi Arabia and gone through skinny sheets of cellulose acetate often called opposite osmosis membranes earlier than getting used as a part of the city's water provide. In St Maurice les Chateauneuf, France 3 million litres an afternoon of floor water are ultrafiltered to provide town and on attempt websites in Australia settled sewage is being disinfected through being undergone microfiltration membranes. a number of the meals we consume and drinks we drink have used membranes in the course of their processing. Orange juice should be focused via membranes to make a focus which keeps extra of the flavor than does evaporation. Milk should be focused a little bit by way of a membrane ahead of creating a cheese in a approach which produces no whey. Gases emerging from the floor in a waste tip may be piped away and the carbon dioxide separated from the methane via a membrane procedure permitting the methane then for use as a gas, at the same time saving power and decreasing the greenhouse influence when you consider that methane is more beneficial as a greenhouse fuel than carbon dioxide.

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57, 603. Karakelle, M. & Zdrahala, R. J. (1989). Membranes for biomedical applications: utilization of plasma polymerization for dimensionally stable hydrophilic membranes, J. Membr. , 41, 305-13. , Iwamoto, M. & Kagawa, S. (1984). Modification of gas permeabilities of polymer membranes by plasma coating, J. Membr. , 19, 249. Kesting, R. E. (1973). Concerning the microstructure of dry-RO membranes, J. Appl. Pol. , 17, 1771-85. Kesting, R. E. (1985). Synthetic Polymeric Membranes, McGraw Hill, New York.

Pol. , 15, 811-28. , Amar, P. & Baker, R. W. (1975). The formation mechanism of asymmetric membranes, Desalination, 16, 179-203. Tanford, C. (1961). Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules, Wiley, New York. Elford, W. J. (1931). A new series of graded collodion membranes suitable for general bacteriological use, especially in filterable virus studies. J. Pathol. ,34, 505-21. Wijmans, 1. , Mulder, M. H. V. & Smolders, C. A. (1985). Phase separation phenomena in solutions of polysulfone in mixtures of a solvent and a nonsolvent: relationship with membrane formation, Polymer, 26, 1539.

Since 'cut-off' values try to relate the pore dimensions of the membrane to the size of the macromolecular solutes in solution this aspect will be discussed first. A polymer in solution can be considered as a random coil. If there is a possibility of rotation about covalent bonds in the polymer backbone there is a continuous motion and in fact there is no well-defined shape. In solution the chain is more coiled than stretched and therefore it is better to define coil dimensions. 19 shows a schematic drawing of such a random coil with the end-to-end distance r.

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Membranes in Bioprocessing: Theory and Applications by J. A. Howell (auth.), J. A. Howell, V. Sanchez, R. W. Field (eds.)

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