Measurements

Download e-book for kindle: Laser Measurement Technology: Fundamentals and Applications by Axel Donges

By Axel Donges

ISBN-10: 3662436337

ISBN-13: 9783662436332

ISBN-10: 3662436345

ISBN-13: 9783662436349

Laser size know-how has developed within the final years in a flexible and reflationary means. this present day, its equipment are necessary for examine and improvement actions in addition to for creation know-how. each physicist and engineer should still as a result achieve a operating wisdom of laser dimension technology.

This publication closes the distance of current textbooks. It introduces in a understandable presentation laser dimension expertise in all its features. a variety of figures, graphs and tables let for a quick entry into the problem. within the first a part of the ebook the real actual and optical fundamentals are defined being essential to comprehend laser dimension expertise. within the moment half technically major measuring equipment are defined and alertness examples are presented.

Target teams of this textbook are scholars of traditional and engineering sciences in addition to operating physicists and engineers, who're to make themselves accustomed to laser size expertise and its attention-grabbing potentials.

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Additional info for Laser Measurement Technology: Fundamentals and Applications

Sample text

It is dangerous to the eye. The power or energy is less than five times the limiting values of the allowed radiation of class 2 (in the wavelength range of 400–700 nm) or class 1 (in the remaining wavelength range). • Class 3B: The laser radiation is hazardous to the eyes and in special cases also for the skin. Diffuse scattered light is safe usually. • Class 4: The laser radiation is hazardous to the human eye, often also to the skin. The various precautions to be taken during the operation of a laser, are described, for example, in [17–21].

For the description of the interaction of light and matter, the wave concept proves to be inadequate in most cases. Already at the end of the 19th century, it became clear that not all experimental observations could be explained by the wave model, for example the photoelectric effect. To explain the photoelectric effect, Albert Einstein introduced in 1905 his bold light quantum hypothesis stating that, light consists of discrete particles, called photons, moving at the speed of light. Each photon is assigned to a certain energy W, which is proportional to the light frequency f: A.

A user of laser radiation should know these parameters being defined by the optical amplifier and the geometry of the optical resonator. 2 Higher Transverse Modes The approach presented in Sect. 35). 35), which are similar to the harmonics of membranes. These solutions of higher order are called TEMu,v-modes. The indices u and v are any non-negative integer values. The abbreviation TEM indicates that the solutions describe transverse electromagnetic waves. 36). 31 shows, in addition to a Gaussian beam, a TEM20-mode as it is calculated in cylindrical coordinates.

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Laser Measurement Technology: Fundamentals and Applications by Axel Donges


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