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By C. K. Raju

On inventory Western historical past, technological know-how originated one of the Greeks, after which constructed in post-renaissance Europe. This tale was once fabricated in 3 stages.

First, in the course of the Crusades, medical wisdom from the world over, in captured Arabic books, was once given a theologically-correct beginning via claiming it was once all transmitted from the Greeks. the major circumstances of Euclid (geometry) and Claudius Ptolemy (astronomy)—both concocted figures—are used to demonstrate this approach.

Second, throughout the Inquisition, international clinical wisdom used to be back assigned a theologically-correct foundation via claiming it was once now not transmitted from others, yet was once “independently rediscovered” via Europeans. The circumstances of Copernicus and Newton (calculus) illustrate this means of “revolution by way of rediscovery”.

Third, the appropriated wisdom was once reinterpreted and aligned to post-Crusade theology. Colonial and racist historians exploited this, arguing that the (theologically) “correct” model of medical wisdom (geometry, calculus, etc.) existed basically in Europe.

These approaches of appropriation proceed to today.

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This was seen as culturally correct in a scriptural culture: “if it is written it must be true”! The textual sources for this history are very late: at least a thousand years after the purported fact. The Latin texts are obviously all post-Crusade texts derived from the Arabic. The Byzantine Greek texts (from Istanbul) are often from even later (as we shall see in the case of Copernicus). Even the earlier texts post-date the Baghdad library. By no stretch of imagination can these texts be construed as “original” Greek sources that they are often passed off as.

Consequently, only some fractions were in common use; these had special names, and ¼ was one such fraction. Now, one of the key passages used to date our Claudius Ptolemy recognizes that the figure of 365 ¼ is erroneous. The author of this passage believed that the true length of the year is 1 day in 300 years less than 365 ¼ days. ) In this passage in the Almagest, the (fake) “observations” of equinox are back-calculated on this erroneous belief. Since the passage was put in later, it should not be used to date Ptolemy.

Thus, according to Pliny, goods imported from India annually drained a significant part of the wealth of the Roman empire,33 and the heavier items, such as Indian elephants and ebony,34 were easier to transport by the sea route. The Greeks, however, had no such material need for a calendar, beyond a simple count of civil days. Therefore, the Greek calendar was so hopeless, that the Greek calends were the butt of jokes even among the Romans (who themselves had such a defective calendar). The Greeks knew little navigation.

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Is Science Western in Origin? by C. K. Raju

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