By Milton Heumann, Lance Cassak
Reliable Cop, undesirable Cop appears on the upward push of racial profiling, some of the most vital and hotly debated themes in legal justice, and strains its improvement from its origins in legal profiling, by utilizing profiles in drug trafficking prevention efforts in airports and at the U.S. highways, till it grew to become synonymous with racial discrimination by way of legislation enforcement. The authors draw upon an intensive physique of fundamental assets, social technology literature, and complaints to check how legislations enforcement, legislators, and the courts have dealt with racial profiling. in addition they evaluation the controversy over racial profiling, supplying arguments made by way of its competitors and defenders earlier than and after the occasions of September eleven and describe its improvement as either a felony and a cultural notion.
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Additional resources for Good Cop, Bad Cop: Racial Profiling and Competing Views of Justice in America (Studies in Crime and Punishment, V. 10.)
A team of experts drawing upon historical data and experience and methodologies in the social sciences, including psychology, carefully conceived the profile. 67 In other important ways, however, the hijacker profile moved away from those criminal-profiling moorings. For one thing, the profile was essentially proactive, rather than reactive; that is, it was used to detect and prevent a future crime rather than to determine who had committed a known crime. Moreover, the elements of the profile were things readily observable to lay persons, rather than the type of observations only a carefully trained law enforcement official would pick up on.
If a person met the profile, agents approached, identified themselves, and attempted to elicit more information to see what, if anything, that person was up to. If additional questioning did not allay the agents‘ suspicions, they asked the person for permission to search him or her and any carry-on bag or luggage. 3 Rounding Up the Usual Suspects; The Characteristics of the Drug Courier Proﬁle What were the characteristics of the drug courier profile as developed by Markonni and used by the DEA?
The DEA, however, had been created, in part, to avoid the abuses and embarrassments that resulted from earlier cooperative endeavors, and thus agents had to be careful to maintain federal oversight. Development 3 New Tactics and Weapons Charged with winning the War on Drugs, the DEA used a variety of tools and strategies. Techniques such as preventive detention and “no-knock” raids were approved by Congress, and with its expanded authority, the DEA eventually created the drug courier profile. Cassak & Heumann: Good Cop, Bad Cop THE ROOTS OF RACIAL PROFILING page 29 29 The Airplane Hijacker Proﬁle If Terry v.
Good Cop, Bad Cop: Racial Profiling and Competing Views of Justice in America (Studies in Crime and Punishment, V. 10.) by Milton Heumann, Lance Cassak