By Robert Castel
In this huge e-book, sociologist Robert Castel reconstructs the heritage of what he calls "the social question," or the ways that either exertions and social welfare were equipped from the center a while onward to modern business society. all through, the writer identifies constants bearing at once at the query of who's entitled to reduction and who might be excluded: the measure of embeddedness in any given neighborhood and the power to paintings. alongside this twin axis the writer locates almost the whole historical past of social welfare in early-modern and modern Europe.
This paintings is a scientific security of the meaningfulness of the class of "the social," written within the culture of Foucault, Durkheim, and Marx. Castel imaginatively builds on Durkheim's perception into the basically social foundation of labor and welfare. Castel populates his sociological framework with bright characterizations of the brief lives of the "disaffiliated": these colourful itinerants whose very life proved this sort of chance to the social cloth of early-modern Europe. no longer strangely, he discovers that the harsh and punitive measures usually directed opposed to those marginal figures are deeply implicated within the strategies and associations of strength and social control.
The writer additionally treats the flipside of the matter of social tips: particularly, issues of labor and wage-labor. Castel brilliantly unearths how the possible aim line of demarcation among able-bodied beggars―those who're in a position to paintings yet who selected to not do so―and those who find themselves really disabled turns into stretched in modernity to make room for the class of the "working poor." it's the novel predicament posed by way of these lots of inhabitants who're not able to keep up themselves by means of their exertions on my own that the majority deeply demanding situations sleek societies and forges recognizably smooth rules of social assistance.
The author's gloss at the social query additionally bargains us worthy views on modern debates over who should still obtain social guidance and even if this entitlement may be associated with the duty to paintings. Castel's wealthy insights and incredible generalizations are necessary for someone interested in what he describes because the "new social query" of labor and social welfare in modern society.
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Additional resources for From Manual Workers to Wage Laborers: Transformation of the Social Question
As such, it primarily concerns a fellow-creature threatened by social dislocation and unable to provide for himself and his needs. The Evangelical Myth Even today, the parameters of the field of social assistance are set by questions about its specialization, professionalization, institutionalization, and how to determine which populations are to be cared for. How did these questions transform themselves in order to make up the actual landscape of social welfare today? Obviously, we do not intend here simply to replicate the history of welfare; a number of admirable works already exist on this subject.
Elderly poor, children without parents, cripples of all sorts, the blind, paraplegics, scrofulous, and madmen—the whole ensemble is as heteronomous as a painting by Hieronymus Bosch. But all these sorts share in common the fact of not being able to satisfy their own basic needs on their own because they cannot work. From this fact they are relieved of the obligation to work. The problem can be posed—and indeed is posed at every instant—of knowing where precisely to draw this dividing line between the capacity and incapacity to work.
Such a liberty that too strongly favored business was too strong, too savage, for those who could only submit themselves to it. Triumphant liberty and individualism have a darker face, the negative individuality of all those who find themselves without belongings and without support, deprived of any protections or recognition. The Social State was constructed as an answer to these circumstances. It imagined itself able to dispel the risk of this by weaving around the relationship of labor a solid system of guarantees.
From Manual Workers to Wage Laborers: Transformation of the Social Question by Robert Castel