By Karlheinz Neunreither, Antje Wiener
Eu integration is at a turning aspect with implications for all member states and their voters. The publication examines the method of eu integration and highlights problems with institutional dynamics and clients for democracy.
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Extra info for European Integration after Amsterdam: Institutional Dynamics and Prospects for Democracy
In those areas which will be •" This draft for a Treaty on European Union with innovative decision-making procedures and institutional provisions, adopted on 14 February 1984 (OJ 84/C 77/33), is also known as the Spinelli Draft Treaty, because it was initiated by the so-called Crocodile Group, led by the Italian MEP, Altiero Spinelli. 32 The exact number depends on the way in which one counts; the subcategories mainly account for variations in the majority applicable in the Council and the various bodies consulted.
2 ' Note that the old troika between the former, the current, and the next presidency has been replaced by a new leading group which might be called a 'duika (a two-headed horse), consisting of the current and the next presidency only. 26 This means that the Commission will be informed of, and consulted about, all activities in the CFSP field, but will have no right of initiative, as it does in the first pillar. 27 We are grateful to Michael Shackleton of the EP for this argument. On the other hand, there are also good reasons for doubting that the EP will indeed react like a rational actor (we are grateful to Karlheinz Neunreither for this point).
For the moment, however, under the Amsterdam Treaty, the list of areas where the Council is authorized to act without being dependent on the EP's approval is still considerably longer than the co-decision list (Duff 1997: 146ff). Of course, a proper assessment should not only consider numbers, but must also take into account the importance of the respective competences. In this respect, it should be noted that a large proportion of the 'traditional' competences of the old European Economic Community, in particular those related to the establishment of the common market (the 'four freedoms'), have been shifted to co-decision, including the prominent Article 95 [lOOa] EC.
European Integration after Amsterdam: Institutional Dynamics and Prospects for Democracy by Karlheinz Neunreither, Antje Wiener