By Pawel Bienkowski
This publication is dedicated to the categorical difficulties of electromagnetic box (EMF) measurements within the close to box and to the research of the most elements which abate accuracy in those measurements. It specializes in cautious and actual layout of platforms to degree within the close to box in accordance with an intensive figuring out of the elemental engineering ideas and on an research of the most likely process blunders. starting with a quick advent to electromagnetic fields with an emphasis at the close to box, it them offers tools of EMF measurements in close to box stipulations. It info the standards proscribing size accuracy together with inner ones (thermal balance, frequency reaction, dynamic features, susceptibility) and exterior ones (field integration, mutual couplings among a probe and first and secondary EMF assets, directional development deformations). It maintains with a dialogue on tips on how to gauge the parameters declared by means of an EMF meter producer and easy tools for checking out those parameters. It additionally info how designers of measuring gear can re-evaluate the close to box whilst designing and trying out, in addition to how clients can take advantage of the information in the publication to make sure their exams and effects comprise the main actual measurements attainable. Electromagnetic Measurements within the close to box is addressed to a variety of experts in biology, medication, hard work security, environmental defense, metrologists, EMF meter designers, testers and clients, or even when you needs to make felony judgements at the grounds of size effects interpretation.
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Additional info for Electromagnetic Measurements in the Near Field
Using the principle of duality, the formulas may be immediately obtained from Eq. 23) by the exchange of E to H and ε to μ and conversely. book Page 22 Wednesday, September 28, 2011 4:22 PM 22 ELECTROMAGNTIC MEASUREMENTS IN THE NEAR FIELD where C1 (α) = a constant dependent of R, and E = |E| is the complex amplitude of the electric field strength. 27) where C2 (α)—a constant dependent of R, and H = |H| is the complex amplitude of the magnetic field strength, while α and R fulfill the conditions of Eq.
10) where: σ = conductivity of the medium, ρ = mass density. ) Both SAR definitions should be equivalent. 12) becomes identical to Eq. 8). It allows the conclusion that the definition of the SAR was introduced in a similar mechanistic way as the above example. book Page 37 Wednesday, September 28, 2011 4:22 PM EMF MEASUREMENT METHODS 37 The temperature rise measurement and then SAR calculation may be characterized as follows: • The temperature rise represents the best quantity of EMF energy absorbed by a body; a good agreement between theoretical analyses and experimentation is obtained without regard to the field modulation, polarization, etc.
This is due to, for instance, the frequency of source variations as a result of its FM modulation, Doppler effect due to reflection from a moving object, and so on. • The radiation pattern in the far field is constant and independent of the distance to a source; on the ground of the near-field measurements, it may be calculated only for sources of regular structure using complex computations . • The Poynting vector in the near field is complex, and its direction and magnitude are functions of the source structure and the distance to the source.
Electromagnetic Measurements in the Near Field by Pawel Bienkowski