By T. Freyburg, P. Murray, F. Schimmelfennig, T. Skripka, A. Wetzel, Sandra Lavenex
Through powerful research of the shortcomings of conventional 'leverage' and 'linkage' types of exterior democracy merchandising within the EU's jap and Southern neighbourhood, it provides a unique 'governance version' that fosters transparency, responsibility, and participation criteria via sensible cooperation among coverage officers from the ecu and neighbouring states.
In specific, it examines the influence of democratic governance advertising in certain case experiences of ecu sectoral cooperation with Moldova, Morocco, and Ukraine within the 3 coverage fields of festival, surroundings, and migration.
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Extra info for Democracy Promotion by Functional Cooperation: The European Union and its Neighbourhood
In order to probe further into the linkage mechanisms, we therefore propose to analyse the effects of different kinds of transnational exchanges separately. We categorize the variables into three types of linkages: economic, communicative, and personal. All three linkages create transnational contact with actors from democratic countries and stakes in liberalization and democratization in the target countries. Economic linkages comprise trade with democratic countries and aid and foreign direct investments (FDI) from democratic countries.
The former include financial assistance, market access, and voting rights in the EU, and the latter include international recognition and praise. In general, democracy means a loss of autonomy and power for the target governments. These governments have to respect, inter alia, the outcomes of free and fair elections, competences of courts and parliaments, rights of the opposition and national minorities, and freedom of the media. To prevent a target government blocking democratic change, these political disincentives need to be balanced in kind by political incentives such as military protection or economic assistance to improve the security and the welfare of the state – and a prospect of re-election for the incumbent government.
The EU’s application of political conditionality in this region is undermined by its efforts to build a multilateral partnership in the Southern Mediterranean and to promote peace in the Middle East – otherwise the EU would risk losing essential partners for these efforts. In the pre-‘Arab Spring’ period on which this chapter focuses, the EU, and particularly its Southern member states, appeared to prefer stable, authoritarian, and Western-oriented regimes to the potential instability and Islamist electoral victories that genuine democratization processes in this region may produce (Gillespie and Whitehead 2002: 196; Gillespie and Youngs 2002: 12–13; Youngs 2002: 42; Jünemann 2003: 7; Pace et al.
Democracy Promotion by Functional Cooperation: The European Union and its Neighbourhood by T. Freyburg, P. Murray, F. Schimmelfennig, T. Skripka, A. Wetzel, Sandra Lavenex