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Human beings themselves determine their behavior with the help of artificial stimulus means. Free human activity is not the same as the spontaneous behavior of an animal. The former presupposes be havior that is mastered and controlled. This is possible only by means of artificial stimuli, signs, and artifacts. Human freedom can exist only in the world of artificial things, in the sphere of mediated, interindividual activity. We would do well to return to the ideas of Vygotsky for understanding activity.
P. (1991). T h e problem of rationality in the beginning of the 20th century. Voprossy Filosofii, 6, 3—14 (in Russian). Gal'perin, P. la. (1976). Introduction to psychology. Moscow: Izd. M G U (in Russian). IPenkov, E. V. (1977a). Dialectical logic: Essays in its history and theory. Moscow: Progress. Il'enkov, E. V. (1977b). T h e concept of the ideal. In Philosophy in the USSR: Problems of dialectical materialism. Moscow: Progress. Lektorsky, V. A. (1984). Subject, object, cognition. Moscow: Progress.
This applies to such phenomena as, for example, the ideal, meanings, and cognitive structures. The dialogical nature of activity I think that this interpretation of the activity approach is im portant and fruitful for philosophy and other human sciences (especially psychology) and cannot be abandoned because of the criticism of certain 68 Vladimir A. Lektorsky versions of the theory. At the same time, I believe that nowadays it is not sufficient to limit the activity approach to these ideas. It seems to me that it is necessary to study specific features of intersubjective relations con nected with activity.