By Adolfo M. Bronstein, Thomas Brandt, Marjorie H. Woollacott, John G. Nutt
The second one version of this definitive textual content, overlaying all medical features of human locomotion and its issues. Multidisciplinary in authorship and method, it covers the entire vital medical parts. up-to-date and revised all through, the booklet has been multiplied to permit for elevated wisdom at the topic. very important adjustments for the second one version contain: new chapters on ideas for gait research, peripheral neuropathies and dizziness.
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Additional resources for Clinical Disorders of Balance, Posture and Gait, 2nd edition
While problems in gait initiation are problematic and not desirable, gait termination poses greater threat to balance control. As in a car, ignition failure may be a nuisance, but the failure of the brakes can lead to devastating consequences. 26,27 The COM and COP proﬁles during gait termination essentially show mirror images of the gait initiation proﬁles (Fig. 3). The COP has to move ahead of the COM to decelerate it and bring it to a stable position. 2 Center of mass (COM) and center of pressure (COP) proﬁles during gait initiation.
To provide functionally appropriate responses, the incoming sensory information has to be modulated by the supraspinal input and spinal pattern generator output. ,49 particularly during the swing phase. Polysynaptic reﬂexes such as the ﬂexor reﬂex50–52 are also modulated and gated to provide functionally appropriate responses. The ﬂexor reﬂex is mediated by skin mechanoreceptors rather than nociceptors (pain receptors). 53 While the study of speciﬁc reﬂexes using artiﬁcial stimuli to speciﬁc classes of receptors have been very useful, it is realized that direct perturbations to balance activate many different types of receptors, leading to more complex functional responses.
This ability to store and retrieve information about their living environment affords animals tremendous advantage: it confers greater ﬂexibility in locomotor behavior and greatly extends the range of travel than would be possible if locomotion were simply triggered and guided by stimuli available in the ﬁeld of perception. NATURE OF COGNITIVE SPATIAL MAPS The stored spatial information is allocentric, that is, independent of the subject’s location and contains both topological (absolute location of objects and landmarks and their various spatial relationship) and metric representation (for review see Poucet104).
Clinical Disorders of Balance, Posture and Gait, 2nd edition by Adolfo M. Bronstein, Thomas Brandt, Marjorie H. Woollacott, John G. Nutt