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Biotic Response to Global Change: The Last 145 Million Years by Stephen J. Culver (Editor), Peter F. Rawson (Editor) PDF

By Stephen J. Culver (Editor), Peter F. Rawson (Editor)

ISBN-10: 0521663040

ISBN-13: 9780521663045

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BURNETT, JEREMY R. YOUNG AND PAUL R. 1 INTRODUCTION Ð THE NATURE OF NANNOPLANKTON Calcareous nannofossils are the smallest (typically 5±10 mm in length), routinely studied fossils. In a pure nannofossil chalk, they are present in concentrations of several billions to a gram. They include coccoliths, the de®nite remains of coccolithophorid algae, and nannoliths, such as discoasters and nannoconids, which are of similar size and composition but which have less-certain biological af®nities. Coccoliths play a major role in global climate-change research.

The movement of the Caribbean microplates and the relative motions of the North and South American plates resulted in the Late Pliocene creation of the Isthmus of Panama. , this volume). The accompanying closure of equatorial marine connections between the Atlantic and Paci®c oceans affected marine biota (Morris & Taylor, this volume). There was a Late Oligocene Paci®c-wide tectonic event associated with the creation of the modern Australia±Paci®c plate boundary at ca. 28±24 Ma, the ca. 25 Ma change in the trends of the Hawaiian and Louisville hotspot chains, and the 27± 25 Ma reorganization of spreading along the Antarctic±Paci®c spreading ridge (Kemp, 1991).

A marked deterioration in global climate started in the Pliocene and, with ¯uctuations, has continued to the present day. , 1966). , 1992). , 1984). 64 Ma. Hence there is some debate about the beginning of the Quaternary Period. 64 Ma. Global aridity increased, with severe ¯uctuations, during the past 200 000 years (up until the Last Glacial Maximum) leading to the extensive spread of deserts and sand dunes in low latitudes (Sarnthein, 1978). Regions such as the Western Sahara and Sahel were, therefore, once much more extensive than at the present day.

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Biotic Response to Global Change: The Last 145 Million Years by Stephen J. Culver (Editor), Peter F. Rawson (Editor)


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