Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods: XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, - download pdf or read online

By Hem Raj Verma

ISBN-10: 3540302778

ISBN-13: 9783540302773

This booklet compares and provides a accomplished evaluation of 9 analytical concepts vital in fabric technological know-how and lots of different branches of technology. a majority of these equipment are already good tailored to purposes in assorted fields similar to clinical, environmental reviews, archaeology, and fabrics technology. This sincerely awarded reference describes and compares the foundations of the tools and a number of the resource and detector types.

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Additional info for Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods: XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques

Sample text

As an example, let the specimen at the center of the goniometer be a single crystal of LiF with (200) planes parallel to the large face. The crystal is bombarded by all X-rays, continuous and characteristic, which are emitted from the X-ray tube. However, it passes on, or diffracts, only that wavelength which satisfies Bragg’s law. e. 1378 nm. The wavelength dispersive spectrometry has an overall low efficiency owing to several intensity losses through the restriction on solid angles and the low “reflectivity” of the analyzing crystal.

11 shows a schematic view of an energy dispersive XRF spectrometer. The basic components of an EDXRF spectrometer are X-ray source, sample, and the detector. Several devices such as source filters, secondary targets, collimators, and focussing optics are used to modify the shape or intensity of the source spectrum or the X-ray beam shape. Collimators (usually circular or a slit whose sizes range from approximately 10 microns to several millimeters) are used between the excitation source (X-ray tube or radioactive source) and the sample to restrict the size or shape of the source beam for exciting small areas.

10) where E is the X-ray energy and ∆θ is the angular divergence of the X-rays incident on the Bragg crystal. The best energy resolution is obtained with a crystal having a 2d-spacing only slightly greater than the wavelength of interest. For a flat crystal spectrometer the angular divergence is primarily determined by a set of entrance parallel plate collimators (sollar slits). Similar set of sollar slits in front of the detector can be used to reduce background due to scattered X-rays and electrons.

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Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods: XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques by Hem Raj Verma

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