By Hans Pauly
This e-book offers a constant, updated description of the tremendous manifold and sundry experimental thoughts which these days allow paintings with impartial debris. It lays the actual foundations of some of the experimental options, which make the most of tools from so much fields in physics. accordingly this booklet is meant not just as a reference commonplace for researchers, but additionally as a textbook to permit scholars to realize an effective historical past and creation to the sector and its suggestions.
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Additional info for Atom, Molecule, and Cluster Beams I: Basic Theory, Production and Detection of Thermal Energy Beams
10 keV), has been developed into a high resolution method to resolve the eleetron density and other parameters of the outer layers of a plasma both in space and time (see Chap. 1). It has been utilized routinely for several years for various experiments in fusion research [Zinoviev (1992), Fiedler (1995)]. The principle of the method is as folIows: A Li atom beam is injected into a plasma. 8 nm). By measuring the relative emission profile of the Li resonance line as a function of the beam coordinate one can determine absolute electron densities as a function of loeation and time [Schweinzer et al.
The target chamber K2 houses the manipulator and the crystal holder as well as devices for low energy electron diffraction (LEED) to probe the surface structure and for Auger electron spectroscopy to determine the purity ofthe surface. Further, it contains a differentially pumped ion gun to clean the surface and a mass spectrometer for residual gas analysis. • The detection chamber K3 holds the detector, eonsisting of an electron impact ionization source, a magnetic mass spectrometer and a multiplier for the detection ofthe ions.
7) ..... (6) I I+i I (5) (4) I I 29 30 31 32 (3) (2) 33 Lifetime / ns 34 35 36 Fig. 6. Comparison between different lifetiIr,e measuremen~ (with error bars) of the 6 P312 112 state of I Cs [Tanner (1995)]. Following methods have been used: Phase shift measurements with modulated excitation [(1) Link (1966), (2) Dodd and Gallagher (1969)], line width [(3) Schmieder et al. (1970), (4) Rydberg and Svanberg (1972)] and decay time measurements [Campani et al. (1980), (7) Young et al. (1994)], fast beam method [(6) Tanner et al.
Atom, Molecule, and Cluster Beams I: Basic Theory, Production and Detection of Thermal Energy Beams by Hans Pauly