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Download PDF by G. Fredzell (auth.), Prof. Dr. H. Just, Prof. Dr. P. H.: Angiocardiography: Current Status and Future Developments

By G. Fredzell (auth.), Prof. Dr. H. Just, Prof. Dr. P. H. Heintzen (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3662008203

ISBN-13: 9783662008201

ISBN-10: 366200822X

ISBN-13: 9783662008225

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1978a). The motion extraction techniques shown in Fig. 8. Schematic diagram of a system for respiration gated subtraction DIGITIZED VIDEO DATA term changes in the projection area or in the thickness of details (Brennecke et al. 1978a, 1982). Modifications such as the subtraction of end diastolic and end systolic frames may provide some functional information (Kruger et al. 1979), but this can also be obtained by dynamic viewing of normal subtraction images obtained at these cardiac phases. Remaining imperfections in the registration of background structures of the subtracted images are the main source of subtraction artifacts.

The same amount of data is produced at high spatial and low temporal resolution as is generated at a high frame rate combined with a lower geometrical resolution. The meaningful choice of these parameters is determined not only by the cost and complexity of the digital storage necessitated, but also by the radiation dose required to provide a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio at the level of the picture elements at a given frame rate and geometrical resolution. The present resolution limit of X-ray TV systems (1024*1024 pixels at a 40ms frame period; Haendle 1979) is still lower than that provided by the cine film.

Only area beam systems seem to be capable at present of providing the high radiographic image data flow necessary for a detailed study of dynamic structures such as the heart. To obtain the high temporal resolution required and at the same time extract quantitative threedimensional (spatial) absorption data is the aim of dynamic spatial reconstruction (DSR; Wood 1977). This complex system combines a number of complete X-ray systems with a high speed digital processor system. Pfeiler (1981) has discussed some basic problems of this approach which may limit its applicability.

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Angiocardiography: Current Status and Future Developments by G. Fredzell (auth.), Prof. Dr. H. Just, Prof. Dr. P. H. Heintzen (eds.)


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